LEAK, dibaca le-ak, legenda dari Bali slalu bikin heboh & membuat
takut sebagian orang. Bagamana jika mereka datang dari berbagai tempat &
berkumpul di dunia maya membentuk
sebuah komunitas, LEAKS! (dibaca: liks!). Btapa dahsyat perasaan takut
yang mendera pihak-pihak yang 'disatroni'. 'Para pelaku leak' itupun kini
diamankan. Kendati demikian, ada satu hal yang terlupa, bahwa fisik mereka
boleh terkurung, namun 'ruh' yg di sini kita sebut sebagai 'wiki' telah
menyebar ke mana-mana.
sejak beberapa waktu lalu situs-situs mereka tidak dapat diakses, situs-situs dokumenter lain
telah membukukan sebagian bahan yang mereka miliki. Masih banyak informasi
berupa dokumen cetak, audio dan/atau visual yang dapat diakses para pencari
'kebenaran' di seluruh kolong langit. Cobalah Anda cari topik tentang
misalnya Collateral Murder, Perang Iraq, Anda akan menemukan ratusan
megabytes data di dunia maya.
Satu kebijaksanaan yang dapat kita
petik dari wikileaks adalah ruh yang mengajak kita senantiasa melandasi
segala perbuatan dengan KETULUSAN. Sudah banyak kerusakan di muka bumi yang
diakibatkan oleh kepentingan segelintir orang, oleh berbagai harapan untuk
mendapatkan imbalan material ataupun sekadar pujian yang dilakukan oleh
para penguasa, orang-orang yang seharusnya melindungi. Pihak-pihak yang disebut sebagai
'para pelaku' kini menunggu kemurahan hidup, semoga raga mereka lekas
dapat 'menemui arwah mereka' kembali di dunia maya! Allahu a'lam.
"Sesungguhnya manusia takkan bisa menikmati syurga, tanpa ikhlas di
hatinya... Sesungguhnya manusia takkan bisa menyentuh nikmat-NYA, tanpa
tulus di hatinya...-Ungu, Sesungguhnya"
Bapak/Ibu/Saudara/Saudari para sahabat dan handai-taulan, INNA LILLAAHI
WA INNAA ILAIHI RAAJI'UUN, telah dipanggil ke hadhirat-Nya, belahan jiwa
dan raga kami, IBUNDA KAMI TERCINTA Maryati Marisi binti Raswad
Martotaruno, pada usia 75 tahun pada hari JUMAT tasyri' tanggal 12/13
Dzulhijjah 1431H atau bertepatan dengan tanggal 19 November 2010 pukul
07.15 WIB di Kota Tegal, Jawa Tengah.
beliau dalam keadaan sehat walafiat, alhamdulillah telah menunaikan 2
hari puasa arafah, menunaikan shalat Ied, dan merayakan Hari Raya Iedul
Adha. Pagi itu tiba-tiba almarhumah terjatuh tak sadarkan diri di depan
kamar mandi. Satu jam kemudian menghembuskan nafas terakhir dengan
tenang, dengan mata dan mulut mengatup dan bibir tersenyum dalam
perjalanan ke rumah sakit dipersaksikan oleh sanak-saudara, seorang
alim, dan seorang petugas medis. Jenazah almarhumah telah dimakamkan
pada hari yang sama pada pukul 22.00 WIB di Pemakaman Umum tanah
kelahiran Kelurahan Kalinyamat Kulon Trukan, Kecamatan Margadana, Kota
Kami keluarga almarhumah memohon doa semoga
almarhumah ditempatkan di tempat terbaik di sisi-Nya dan agar keluarga
yang ditinggalkan senantiasa tabah. Kami juga memohon keikhlasan
Bapak/Ibu/Saudara/Saudari para sahabat dan handai-taulan terutama yang
mengenal beliau secara pribadi agar MENGIKHLASKAN kepergian beliau dan
MEMBUKAKAN PINTU MAAF jika ada khilaf yang pernah beliau perbuat.
Allahummaghfirlahaa, warhamhaa, wa'afihi wa'fu'anhaa, waj'al jannata
Nge-teh atau minum teh telah menjadi bagian hidup tak terpisahkan
dari Wong Tegal. Dengan beberapa macam sebutan seperti MOCI atau NUBRUK,
teh merupakan bagian dari budaya.
Bagi orang Tegal, teh adalah
penghormatan dan keramahan. Wong Tegal hampir selalu menyajikan teh
bagi para tamunya. Teh yang disajikan bukanlah teh celup yang merupakan
produk massal akhir millenium I, bukan pula teh dalam kemasan (seperti
yang ramai diiklankan) yang berumur lebih lama. Teh bagi Wong Tegal adalah teh daun masak kasar, atau yang lebih dikenal sebagai teh hitam atau teh tubruk
Bahan perasa minuman alami ini mengandung antioksidan dalam dosis
tinggi, dan mampu menetralisasi radikal bebas dalam tubuh. Tidak
mengherankan jika kasus2 penyakit kronis jarang ditemui di antara wong2
Tegal. Hal ini karena selain etos kerja wong Tegal yang tinggi (dikenal
sebagai para pekerja keras), juga karena budaya minum teh yang lestari.
Ya, alur berpikir mereka begitu sederhana.. manusia dewasalah yg
membuat sesuatu menjadi serba rumit, suka mendramatisasi keadaan karena
berbagai dasar pengalaman & kepentingan.
Kenapa berpikir susah-susah, ini jaman teknologi, sudah saatnya VAMPIRE minum SANGOBION... Let's think as simple as possible!
"Apa yang dimaksud dengan mempercayai seseorang?", suatu ketika Sasaki Kojiro bertanya kepada Oshino,
kekasihnnya. "Jika seseorang sehati dengan seorang lainnya. Jika dua
hati berdetak seiring-sejalan layaknya satu hati", jawab Oshino. Setelah
melanglang Jepang menuju penyempurnaan ilmu pedangnya, Sasaki Kojiro
menemukan kembali soulmate-nya itu. Meskipun
Oshino dikenal sebagai s'orang penari, wanita penghibur dan tak jarang
orang mengolok di belakang, namun bagi Kojiro ialah orang yang telah
memberikan banyak pencerahan dalam hidup. Ialah wanita yang telah
mencairtawarkan kedinginbekuan hatinya. "Ia adalah bayanganku, siapa yang mengusiknya berarti ia mengusik aku!",
tegas Kojiro ketika ia mendengar sindiran orang. "Aku akan menjadi
bayanganmu. Sebuah bayangan tidak akan meninggalkan pemiliknya, apapun
yang terjadi", janji Oshino yang terucap sebelumnya. Betapa manisnya...
Tepat sebagaimana bait lagu Dewa 19, "Bayang-bayangmu Kasih, slalu hadir
dalam gelisahku...". (apa hubungannya neh???) Atau syair lagu milik A.
Rafiq "Bayang-bayang samakan, dia dengan yang lain...!". (halah! tambah
Lanjut... Pencerahan ini tidak hanya diterima oleh Sasaki Kojiro, namun juga Musashi. Miyamoto Musashi,
Sang Pendekar Pedang teratas lainnya juga memiliki pertanyaan dan
menerima pencerahan yang sama, langsung dari mulut Oshino. Hal ini
terjadi menjelang pertarungan satu lawan satu antara Kojiro dan Musashi.
Pada keesempatan tersebut Oshino menambahkan, "mempercayai seseorang adalah rasa bahwa jiwa orang tersebut adalah jiwanya sendiri".
Oshino membawa pesan dari soulmate-nya agar Musashi berhati-hati karena
duel mereka yang akan datang adalah jebakan. Penguasa menentukan agar
keduanya harus mati, siapapun yang akan menjadi pemenangnya! Adalah hal
yang sangat tragis ketika dua orang terbaik harus melakukan pertarungan
yang tidak perlu akibat suatu entitas yang disebut "politik". Keduanya adalah pendekar sejati yang senantiasa berusaha mencari makna sesungguhnya dari dunia yang mereka geluti.
Mereka adalah orang-orang yang mengerti satu sama lain, orang-orang
yang saling menghargai kemampuan dan kerendahan hati orang lain. Di sisi
lain mereka adalah orang-orang yang telah menjalani hidup penuh cobaan
dan rintangan, masa kecil yang tidak bahagia, masa remaja yang tak
menentu, pencarian makna hidup yang tampak tak pernah berujung, dan
sama-sama memiliki kekasih hati yang ingin ditemui tuk berbagi hidup
Tanggal 13 April 1612, dalam duel rekayasa para
penguasa di pulau kecil Ganryujima (saat itu bernama Funashima)
tersebut, Musashi memang berhasil menjatuhkan Kojiro, namun kemenangan
itu dirasakannya hambar. Pujian Kojiro untuknya setelah terjungkal
bersimbah darah, & permintaannya agar Musashi segera meninggalkan
arena pertarungan terus terngiang di telinganya... Ternyata kemenangan memang bukan segalanya.
Sedangkan orang-orang yang mengejar kekuasaan dan kemasyhuran lebih
sering memberanguskan potensi dan mencabut roh kehidupan, disadari
maupun tidak. Tak heran banyak orang bijak dan orang besar (termasuk
fisikawan Albert Einstein) menyatakan : "Try not to become a man of
success, but a man of value instead", janganlah berusaha menjadi orang
sukses, tetapi orang yang bernilai! Termasuk golongan yang manakah Anda?
Yang manapun kita, mari selalu kita ingat, bahwa sebaik-baik manusia
adalah mereka yang paling banyak memberi manfaat bagi orang lain. Allaahu a'lam.
pagi ini laut tampak gelisah. jika kupaksakan diri berenang, aku
khawatir dia lupa bahwa aku masih bermain-main dengannya, atau dia bahkan
marah karena aku berusaha mengambil sejumput energinya... aku hanya mampu
memandanginya, mengambil setitik energi dari angin sejuk yang
melingkupi dan sedikit dari surya yang juga sedang tampak garang. akupun pulang, membawa energi kehidupan, untuk berkarya hari ini... bismillaah...
membaca "biarkan dunia berpijak pada waktu, biarkan perasaan berpijak
pada hati yang tulus",
coretan Kakmas Owi Pringadi yg msh berurusan dengan
rumah sakit [semoga lekas pulih...]
& bela sungkawa atas wafatnya
ibunda mertua Mbakyu Wien Pringadi [semoga ALLAH ampunkan segala kesalahan & memuliakan beliau...]
membuat melankoli hari ini...
GIFTED CHILDREN By Carol Bainbridge, About.com Guide
the trained eye, it can be fairly easy to spot a gifted child. Even to the
not-so-trained eye of a parent, it's easy to notice that a child is not quite
like other children. However, parents often question what those differences
mean. They know their child is smart, but gifted? Looking at a list of gifted
traits or characteristics is a quick first step in determining whether a child
is gifted. If you have a toddler and you're wondering if he or she is gifted,
take a look at the list of characteristics of young gifted children. Cognitive Traits
o Very Observant
o Extremely Curious
o Intense interests
o Excellent memory
o Long attention span
o Excellent reasoning skills
o Well-developed powers of abstraction, conceptualization, and synthesis
o Quickly and easily sees relationships in ideas, objects, or facts
o Fluent and flexible thinking
o Elaborate and original thinking
o Excellent problem solving skills
o Learns quickly and with less practice and repetition
o Unusual and/or vivid imagination Social and Emotional Traits (see Supersensitivities in Gifted Children)
o Interested in philosophical and social issues
o Very sensitive, emotionally and even physically
o Concerned about fairness and injustice
o Well-Developed Sense of Humor
o Usually intrinsically motivated
o Relates well to parents, teachers and other adults Language Traits (See Language Development in Gifted Children)
o Extensive Vocabulary
o May Read Early
o Reads Rapidly and Widely
o Asks "what if" questions Additional Traits
o Enjoys learning new things
o Enjoys intellectual activity
o Displays intellectual playfulness
o Prefers books and magazines meant for older children
o Skeptical, critical, and evaluative
o Asynchronous development
Reading on Gifted Children
Characteristics of Young Gifted ChildrenDabrowski's OverexcitabiltiesSocial and
More Reading on Gifted
Children Early Entry into
Kindergarten What to Look for in a Good Gifted Program Developmental Milestones
- Three Months to Five Years
• Is My Child Gifted?
• Quick Test for Giftedness
• What is a Gifted Child?
• Different Perspectives on the Term Gifted
• Gifted Kids' Bill of Rights DABROWSKI'S OVEREXCITABILITIES OR
SUPERSENSITIVITIES IN GIFTED CHILDREN By Carol Bainbridge, About.com Guide
your child complain about the seams in his socks? Put her hands over her ears
when the movie starts in the movie theater? Have trouble sitting still? Get
moved almost to tears by a piece of music or work of art? These are signs of
the kinds of intensities that can be seen in gifted children.
Polish psychologist Kazimierz Dabrowski identified five of these intensities,
which he called "overexcitabilities" or
"supersensitivities": Psychomotor, Sensual, Emotional, Intellectual,
and Imaginational. Gifted children tend to have more than one of these
intensities, although one is usually dominant. Psychomotor The primary sign of this intensity is a surplus of energy. Children with a
dominant psychomotor overexcitability are often misdiagnosed with ADHD since
characteristics are similar.
• Rapid speech
• Impulsive behavior
• Compulsive talking
• Compulsive organizing
• Nervous habits and tics
• Preference for fast action and sports
• Physical expression of emotions
Sensual The primary sign of
this intensity is a heightened awareness of all five senses: sight, smell,
taste, touch, and hearing. Children with a dominant sensual overexcitability
can get sick from the smell of certain foods or as toddlers will hate to walk
on grass in their bare feet. The pleasure they get from the tastes and textures
of some foods may cause them to overeat.
• Appreciation of beauty, whether in writing, music, art or nature. Includes
love of objects like jewelry
• Sensitive to smells, tastes, or textures of foods
• Sensitivity to pollution
• Tactile sensitivity (Bothered by feel of some materials on the skin, clothing
• Craving for pleasure
• Need or desire for comfort
Intellectual This intensity is the
one most recognized in gifted children. It is characterized by activities of
the mind, thought and thinking about thinking. Children who lead with this
intensity seem to be thinking all the time and want answers to deep thoughts.
Sometimes their need for answers will get them in trouble in school when their
questioning of the teacher can look like disrespectful challenging.
• Deep curiosity
• Love of knowledge and learning
• Love of problem solving
• Avid reading
• Asking of probing questions
• Theoretical thinking
• Analytical thinking
• Independent thinking
• Concentration, ability to maintain intellectual effort
Imaginational The primary sign of
this intensity is the free play of the imagination. Their vivid imaginations
can cause them to visualize the worst possibility in any situation. It can keep
them from taking chances or getting involved in new situations.
• Vivid dreams
• Fear of the unknown
• Good sense of humor
• Magical thinking
• Love of poetry, music and drama
• Love of fantasy
• Imaginary friends
• Detailed visualization
Emotional The primary sign of
this intensity is exceptional emotional sensitivity. Children with a strong
emotional overexcitability are sometimes mistakenly believed to have bipolar
disorder or other emotional problems and disorders. They are often the children
about whom people will say, "He's too sensitive for his own good."
• Extremes of emotion
• Feelings of guilt and sense of responsibility
• Feelings of inadequacy and inferiority
• Timidity and shyness
• Concern for others
• Heightened sense right and wrong, of injustice and hypocrisy
• Strong memory for feelings
• Problems adjusting to change
• Need for security
• Physical response to emotions (stomach aches caused by anxiety, for example)
Parents can get a better understanding of their gifted children by matching
their child's behavior with the characteristics of each of these intensities.
Telling an emotionally intense child to ignore teasing or not let the teasing
bother him is impossible advice for the child to follow. Understanding what
lies behind a gifted child's behavior will help parents better respond to that
More on Dabrowski's
Overexcitabilities in Gifted Children Psychomotor
OverexcitabilitySensual OverexcitabilityIntellectual Overexcitability
Imaginational OverexcitabilityEmotional Overexcitability
Suggested Reading How to Raise
• Dabrowski's Psychomotor Overexcitability of Gifted Children
• Dabrowski's Intellectual Overexcitability of Gifted Children
• Dabrowski's Imaginational Overexcitability of Gifted Children
• Dabrowski's Sensual Overexcitability of Gifted Children
CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG
GIFTED CHILDREN By Carol Bainbridge, About.com Guide
How old does a child have to be before he or she exhibits characteristics of
giftedness? Many parents and teachers believe that a child is gifted when
school tests say they are, and these tests aren't given until third or fourth
grade, if at all. The truth is that gifted traits show up in toddlers. In fact,
some of them can be seen even in infants!
Browse through the following lists and see how many characteristics apply to
your young child. Keep in mind that to be gifted a child need not have every
one of these characteristics. Traits in Young Children: 1. As infants, may get fussy if facing one direction for too long
2. As infants, appear alert
3. Need less sleep, even as infants
4. Frequently reach 'milestones' such as walking and first speech earlier than
5. May speak late, but then speak in complete sentences
6. Strong desire to explore, investigate, and master the environment (opens up
cabinets, takes things apart)
7. Toys and games mastered early, then discarded
8. Very active (but activity with a purpose, not to be confused with ADHD)
9. Can distinguish between reality and fantasy (questions about Santa or the
tooth fairy come very early!)
Highly gifted toddlers may also show an intense interest in numbers or letters.
These are often the children who start doing simple math or teach themselves to
read by the time they are three. However, a child who does not read or do math
early may still be gifted. Children who read or do math early are almost
certainly gifted, but not all gifted children do those things early.
Studies of gifted infants (those who score high on IQ tests as grade school
children) show that they have a low tolerance for the familiar and a preference
for novelty. Basically, infants were shown different objects for a certain
amount of time. Those infants who later were shown to be gifted children looked
away from objects more quickly than other infants. When shown a familiar object
and a new one, the gifted infants preferred to look at the new one.
This is interesting since it supports the idea that gifted children need new
information to learn, that they get bored with the same old information day
after day. Their frustration at having to learn and "relearn" the
same information is due to this apparently inborn need for novelty and not to
their being spoiled, as many people imply (or state outright!)
Suggested Reading on
Young Gifted Children Gifted BabiesSigns of
Giftedness in InfantsStop a Fussy Gifted Baby From Fussing
Reading on Young Gifted
Children Elsewhere on the Web Early Signs of
of Young Gifted Children
Additional Reading to
Help Understand Gifted Children Developmental
Milestones - Three Months to Five Years
Young Gifted Children
• Premature Birth and Giftedness
• Signs of Giftedness in Infants
• Gifted Babies
• Stop a Fussy Gifted Baby From Fussing
GIFTED CHILDREN AND
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT By Carol Bainbridge, About.com Guide
characteristic of gifted children is advanced language ability, which means
these children reach developmental milestones relating to language earlier than
developmental charts would indicate. This means that gifted children tend to
talk earlier, have larger vocabularies, and use longer sentences than
How can parents tell if their child's language development is advanced? A first
step is to look at typical language developmental milestones. A second step is
to look at what advanced language development is.
Language Developmental Milestones
At three months, a child:
• Makes cooing and gurgling sounds
six months, a child:
• Babbles and makes sing-song sounds
twelve months, a child:
• Babbles, but with inflection, which sounds like talking
• Says first word
eighteen months, a child:
• Says 8-10 words others can understand
• Has vocabulary of about 5 to 40 words, mostly nouns
• Repeats words heard in conversation
• Uses “hi,” “bye,” and “please” when reminded
two years, a child:
• Has a vocabulary of 150 to 300 words
• Uses 2-3 word sentences, usually in noun-verb combinations, such as "Dog
bark," but also using inflection with combinations like "More
• Refers to self by name and uses “me” and “mine”
three years, a child:
• Uses 3-5 word sentences
• Asks short questions, usually using "what" or "where."
• Has a vocabulary of about 900-1000 words
four years, a child:
• Has a vocabulary of about 1,500 to 2,500 words
• Uses sentences of 5 or more words
five years, a child:
• Identifies some letters of the alphabet
• Uses 6 words in a sentence
• Uses “and,” “but,” and “then” to make longer sentence
age six, a child's language begins to sound like adult speech, including the
use of complex sentences, with words like "when," for example.
However, children tend not to use sentences with "although" and
"even though" until about age 10.
Early Talking Gifted children tend
to begin talking early. While most children say their first word at around one
year of age, gifted children may begin speaking when they are nine months old.
Some parents report that their children said their first word even earlier than
that, as early as six months of age.
Some parents have even reported that their children tried very hard to form
words at three months! However, most babies are simply not physically developed
sufficiently to control their mouths, tongue, and lips well enough to make the
speech sounds they need. They may purse their lips and nearly turn blue with
the effort and then become quite frustrated when they can't make the sounds
they want to make.
Teaching babies sign language is a good way to help these children express
themselves without vocalization.
It's important to note that not all gifted children speak early. In fact, some
gifted children are late talkers, not talking until they are two years old or
even older. When they do speak, however, they sometimes skip over the stages of
language development and may begin speaking in full sentences. While early
talking is a sign of giftedness, not speaking early is not an indication that a
child is not gifted. Advanced Vocabulary An advanced vocabulary can mean two different things. It can mean the
number of words a child uses and it can mean the types of words a child uses.
While a non-gifted child may have a vocabulary of 150-300 words at age two,
gifted children may have surpassed the 100 word mark by the time they are
eighteen months old. At eighteen months, most children have a vocabulary of
from five to twenty words, although some do reach the fifty-word milestone by
the time they are two years old. In their second year, most children increase
their vocabulary to up to 300 words. Gifted children, however, will have a
larger working vocabulary, approaching that of a four year old or even older
The other type of advanced vocabulary refers to the types of words a child has
in his or her vocabulary. Typically, the first words a child learns will be
nouns: mama, daddy, dog, ball, bird, etc. After that, simple verbs are added,
for example, want, go, see, give. Gifted children, however, will be adding
connecting words, such as and or even because. By age three, gifted children
might also have added transitional words, such as however or multisyllabic
words like appropriate. Sentence Structures A typical two-year old can construct sentences of two or three words, often
without a verb. For example, a child might say, "There cat" for
"There is a cat." A gifted child, however, will often be able to
speak in fuller sentences at age two and by age three, their language may
already resemble adult speech. They are able to use time markers, like now,
later, first, and then, which, along with their advanced vocabulary and more
complete sentences, allow them to carry on full conversations with adults.
Although most gifted children have this kind of advanced language development,
its absence does not mean a child is not gifted. The range of normal language
development is also as widely variable in gifted children as it is in the
non-gifted population. These descriptions of what might be typical in a gifted
child are meant to help parents understand what advanced language ability looks
Reading on Advanced
Development of Gifted Children Characteristics of
Overexcitabilities or Supersensitivities in Gifted Children
Theory of Positive Disintegration
Suggested Reading on
Language Development in Children Elsewhere on the Web Language Development
and Language Developmental Milestones
Recommended Reading Developmental
• Is My Child Gifted?
• Quick Test for Giftedness
• What is a Gifted Child?
• Characteristics of Gifted Children
• Different Perspectives on the Term Gifted
ASYNCHRONOUS DEVELOPMENT By Carol Bainbridge, About.com Guide
development refers to uneven intellectual, physical, and emotional development.
In average children, intellectual, physical, and emotional development
progresses at about the same rate. That is, the development is in
"sync." An average three-year-old has the intellectual and physical
abilities as well as the emotional maturity most other three-year-olds have.
However, in gifted children, the development of those areas is out of "sync."
They do not progress at the same rate. A gifted three-year-old child's
developmental profile could look like this:
ability -- age 6
Physical ability -- age 3
Emotional maturity -- age 2
Intellectual ability -- age 7
Physical ability -- age 3
Emotional maturity -- age 4
Intellectual ability -- age 6
Physical ability -- age 4
Emotional maturity -- age 3
any other combination of the three, although the intellectual ability is always
advanced. (Some believe that it is possible to advanced physically, but not
The higher a child's IQ is, the more out of sync his or her development is
likely to be.
Suggested Reading About
Gifted Children Characteristics of
Your Gifted Child
Reading About Asynchronous Development
on the Web
Giftedness As Asynchronous Development
• Ability Grouping
• AP Courses
• Ceiling Effect
• Cluster Grouping
• Cooperative Learning "The truly creative mind in any
field is no more than this :
A human creature born abnormally, inhumanly sensitive.
a touch is a blow,
a sound is a noise,
a misfortune is a tragedy,
a joy is an ecstasy,
a friend is a lover,
a lover is a god,
and failure is death.
Add to this cruelly
delicate organism the overpowering necessity to create, create, create - - - so
that without the creating of music or poetry or books or buildings or something
of meaning, his very breath is cut off from him. He must create, must pour out
creation. By some strange, unknown, inward urgency he is not really alive
unless he is creating."
-Pearl Buck- Characteristics of Gifted Children Identifying The Gifted
Recognizing the Characteristics of Gifted Children
General Behavior Characteristics
Who are the Highly Gifted?
Some Myths About Gifted Children
________________________________________Identifying The Gifted 1. Einstein was four years old before he could speak and seven before he
2. Isaac Newton did poorly in grade school.
3. When Thomas Edison was a boy, his teachers told him he was too stupid to
4. F.W.Woolworth got a job in a dry goods store when he was 21. But his
employers would not let him wait on a customer because he "Didn't have
5. A newspaper editor fired Walt Disney because he had "No good
6. Caruso's music teacher told him "You can't sing, you have no voice at
7. Leo Tolstoy flunked out of college.
8. Verner Von Braun flunked 9th grade algebra.
9. Admiral Richard E. Byrd had been retired from the navy, as, "Unfit for
service" Until he flew over both poles.
10. Louis Pasteur was rated as mediocre in chemistry when he attended the Royal
11. Abraham Lincoln entered The Black Hawk War as a captain and came out a
12. Fred Waring was once rejected from high school chorus.
13. Winston Churchill failed the sixth grade. Recognizing the Characteristics of
Gifted Children ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children (1985) cites three
types of characteristics of gifted children: general behavioral, learning, and
Characteristics Gifted children's
behavior differs from that of their age-mates in the following ways:
• Many gifted children learn to read early, with better comprehension of the
nuances of language. As much as half the gifted and talented population has
learned to read before entering school.
• Gifted children often read widely, quickly, and intensely and have large
• Gifted children commonly learn basic skills better, more quickly, and with
• They are better able to construct and handle abstractions.
• They often pick up and interpret nonverbal cues and can draw inferences that
other children need to have spelled out for them.
• They take less for granted, seeking the "hows" and
• They can work independently at an earlier age and can concentrate for longer
• Their interests are both wildly eclectic and intensely focused.
• They often have seemingly boundless energy, which sometimes leads to a
misdiagnosis of hyperactivity.
• They usually respond and relate well to parents, teachers, and other adults.
They may prefer the company of older children and adults to that of their
• They like to learn new things, are willing to examine the unusual, and are
• They tackle tasks and problems in a well-organized, goal-directed, and
• They exhibit an intrinsic motivation to learn, find out, or explore and are
often very persistent. "I'd rather do it myself" is a common
attitude. Learning Characteristics Gifted children are natural learners who often show many of these
• They may show keen powers of observation and a sense of the significant; they
have an eye for important details.
• They may read a great deal on their own, preferring books and magazines
written for children older than they are.
• They often take great pleasure in intellectual activity.
• They have well-developed powers of abstraction, conceptualization, and synthesis.
• They readily see cause-effect relationships.
• They often display a questioning attitude and seek information for its own
sake as much as for its usefulness.
• They are often skeptical, critical, and evaluative. They are quick to spot
• They often have a large storehouse of information about a variety of topics,
which they can recall quickly.
• They readily grasp underlying principles and can often make valid
generalizations about events, people, or objects.
• They quickly perceive similarities, differences, and anomalies.
• They often attack complicated material by separating it into components and
analyzing it systematically. Creative Characteristics Gifted children's creative abilities often set them apart from their age-mates.
These characteristics may take the following forms:
• Gifted children are fluent thinkers, able to generate possibilities,
consequences, or related ideas.
• They are flexible thinkers, able to use many different alternatives and
approaches to problem solving.
• They are original thinkers, seeking new, unusual, or unconventional
associations and combinations among items of information.
• They can also see relationships among seemingly unrelated objects, ideas, or
• They are elaborate thinkers, producing new steps, ideas, responses, or other
embellishments to a basic idea, situation, or problems.
• They are willing to entertain complexity and seem to thrive on problem
• They are good guessers and can readily construct hypotheses or "what
• They often are aware of their own impulsiveness and irrationality, and they
show emotional sensitivity.
• They are extremely curious about objects, ideas, situations, or events.
• They often display intellectual playfulness and like to fantasize and
• They can be less intellectually inhibited than their peers are in expressing
opinions and ideas, and they often disagree spiritedly with others' statements.
• They are sensitive to beauty and are attracted to aesthetic values. Who are the Highly Gifted? Highly gifted children tend to be those who demonstrate asynchronous
development. Due to their high cognitive abilities and high intensities they
experience and relate to the world in unique ways. These children are often
found as a result of extremely high scores on an individually scored IQ tests,
generally above the 140 IQ range. Others may be prodigies in areas such as
math, science, language and/or the arts. Profoundly gifted children can score
in excess of 170 IQ.
Highly gifted children demonstrate characteristics such as the extreme need to:
1. Learn at a much faster pace.
2. Process material to a much greater depth.
3. Show incredible intensity in energy, imagination, intellectual prowess,
sensitivity, and emotion which are not typical in the general population.
The child of 160+ is as different from the child of 130 IQ as that child is
different from the child of average ability. Current research suggests that
there may be higher incidence of children in this high range than previously
thought. Due to their unique characteristics, these children are particularly
vulnerable. Highly gifted children need a specialized advocacy because very
little has been done to develop appropriate curriculum and non-traditional
options for these children.
From the Hollingworth Center for Highly Gifted Children
Printed with Permission Some Myths About Gifted Children Gifted Kids are like cream that rises to the top in a classroom:
Not necessarily. Gifted Children can have hidden learning disabilities that go
undiscovered because they can easily compensate for them in the early years. As
time goes on though, it becomes harder and harder for them to excel. Which can
lead to behavior problems and depression.
Kids are so smart they do fine with or without special programs:
They may appear to do fine on their own. But without proper challenge they can
become bored and unruly. As the years go by they may find it harder and harder
as work does become more challenging, since they never faced challenge before.
Gifted and Talented means the same thing:
not necessarily. There is no rule that states that a child who is capable of
scoring to the high ninety percentiles on group achievement testing must be
considered gifted. We must remember that achievement tests like the
Metropolitan Achievement Tests are "Grade Level Testing". Such a
child is most definitely Academically Talented. But further individualized IQ
and out of level academic testing must be given before we can define that child
as "Gifted". At the same time, there is no rule that states a child
identified as gifted should be Achieving to high standards in the classroom.
This type of stereotyping can do serious and irreversible damage to both groups.
ANY child can benefit from enrichment. Academically Talented Children can
benefit from Honors (Grade Level) Classes. Intellectually Gifted children need
a differentiated curriculum and possibly even a different environment.
They need to go through school with their own age mates:
it's true that children need to play and interact socially with other children
their age, they do not need to learn with them. Especially in the case of a
highly gifted child who may have a chronological age of six and a mental age of
11 who has been reading since two. To put that child in a reading class with
other six year olds who are just learning to read is sheer torture for that
is something to be jealous about:
This is perhaps the most damaging myth. More often than not gifted children can
feel isolated and misunderstood. They have more adult tastes in music,
clothing, reading material and food. These differences to other children can
cause them to be shunned and even abused verbally or physically by other children.
Experts in the field of gifted education are beginning to address the higher
incidences of ADHD and Spelling/Handwriting disabilities in the gifted
population verses those in the much larger normal population. HELPING YOUR HIGHLY GIFTED CHILD by Stephanie S. Tolan
ERIC DIGEST #E477, 1990
Most parents greet the discovery that their child is not merely gifted but
highly or profoundly gifted with a combination of pride, excitement, and fear.
They may set out to find experts or books to help them cope with raising such a
child, only to find there are no real experts, only a couple of books, and very
little understanding of extreme intellectual potential and how to develop it.
This digest deals with some areas of concern and provides a few practical suggestions
based on the experience of other parents and the modest amount of research
Differences To understand highly
gifted children it is essential to realize that, although they are children
with the same basic needs as other children, they are very different. Adults
cannot ignore or gloss over their differences without doing serious damage to
these children, for the differences will not go away or be outgrown. They
affect almost every aspect of these children's intellectual and emotional lives.
microscope analogy is one useful way of understanding extreme intelligence. If
we say that all people look at the world through a lens, with some lenses
cloudy or distorted, some clear, and some magnified, we might say that gifted
individuals view the world through a microscope lens and the highly gifted view
it through an electron microscope. They see ordinary things in very different
ways and often see what others simply cannot see. Although there are advantages
to this heightened perception, there are disadvantages as well.
Since many children eventually become aware of being different, it is important
to prepare yourself for your child's reactions. When your child's giftedness
has been identified, you might open a discussion using the microscope analogy.
If you are concerned that such a discussion will promote arrogance, be sure to
let children know that unusual gifts, like hair and eye color, are not earned.
It is neither admirable nor contemptible to be highly gifted. It is what one
does with one's abilities that is important.
A United Front As in most other
aspects of parenting, it is important for both parents (or the adults who bear
primary responsibility for raising the child) to agree on some basic issues
regarding the child's potential. Many parents of exceptionally gifted children
were themselves gifted or exceptionally gifted children. If they did not learn
to accept and understand their own giftedness, they may find it difficult to
accept their child's unusual capacities. Raising a highly gifted child may help
parents come to terms with many difficult aspects of their own lives, but it
helps if they focus first on the needs of the child and come to an agreement
about how to meet them.
What the Highly Gifted
Need Exceptionally gifted
children have two primary needs. First, they need to feel comfortable with
themselves and with the differences that simultaneously open possibilities and
create difficulty. Second, they need to develop their astonishing potential.
There is a strong internal drive to develop one's abilities. Thwarting that
drive may lead to crippling emotional damage. Throughout the parenting years,
it is wise to keep in mind that the healthiest long term goal is not
necessarily a child who gains fame, fortune, and a Nobel Prize, but one who
becomes a comfortable adult and uses gifts productively.
The Early Years Before your child
begins formal schooling, differences can be handled by your willingness to
follow the child's lead and meet needs as they arise. It is possible and
important to treat an infant's or toddler's precocity with a degree of
normalcy. For example, a 2-year-old who prefers and plays appropriately with
toys designed for 6-year-olds should be given those toys. The 3-year-old who
reads should be given books. The child who speaks very early and with a
sophisticated vocabulary should be spoken to in kind.
Public Attitudes Even when parents can
take precocious achievements in stride, friends, family and strangers may not.
Unthinking people will comment (often loudly and in front of the child) that a
2- or 3-year-old who sits in the grocery cart reading packages aloud is a
It may be surprisingly difficult to avoid letting parental pride lure you into
encouraging your children to "perform" in public. Keep in mind the
goal of making the child as comfortable as possible with individual
differences. The more casually you accept unusual early accomplishments, the
more your children will be able to see those accomplishments as normal. Later,
when the gifts are no longer quite as noticeable, the child will not feel that
what made him or her valuable has somewhat been lost.
Multiple Ages Highly gifted
children are many ages simultaneously. A 5- year-old may read like a
7-year-old, play chess like a 12- year-old, talk like a 13-year-old, and share
toys like a 2-year- old. A child may move with lightning speed from a reasoned
discussion of the reasons for taking turns on the playground to a full-scale
temper tantrum when not allowed to be first on the swing. You can help yourself
maneuver among the child's ages by reading about developmental norms (Gesell is
a good guide) so that you are ready for (and avoid punishing) behavior that,
though it seems childish in a precocious child, is absolutely age appropriate.
School If your nine month
old begins speaking in full sentences, you probably will not tell the child to
stop and wait till other nine month olds catch up. You would not limit such a
child to using nouns because that is as much speech as most nine month olds can
handle. However, in public or private school that may be the approach some
is important to realize that they are not purposely setting out to keep your
child from learning, although that might be the effect. Many educators have
never knowingly dealt with a highly gifted child. They do not recognize them,
and they do not know how to handle them. Some educators base teaching methods
an developmental norms that are inappropriate for highly gifted children.
Although they may be willing to make an effort to accommodate these youngsters,
they may lack sufficient information or experience and not know what type of
effort to make.
a child enters school already able to do what the teacher intends to teach,
there is seldom a variety of mechanisms for teaching that child something else.
Even if there were a way to provide time, attention, and an appropriate
curriculum, it would be necessary for the teacher to use different teaching
methods. Highly gifted children learn not only faster than others, but also
differently. Standard teaching methods take complex subjects and break them
into small, simple bits presented one at a time. Highly gifted minds can
consume large amounts of information in a single gulp, and they thrive on
complexity. Giving these children simple bits of information is like feeding an
elephant one blade of grass at a time - he will starve before he even realizes
that anyone is trying to feed him.
forced to work with the methods and pace of a typical school, highly gifted
children may look not more capable than their peers, but less capable. Many of
their normal characteristics add to this problem. Their handwriting might be
very messy because their hands do not keep pace with their quick minds. Many
spell poorly because they read for comprehension and do not see the words as
collections of separate letters. When they try to "sound out" a word,
their logical spelling of an illogical language results in errors. Most have
difficulty with rote memorization, a standard learning method in the early
Lack of Fit The difficulty with
highly gifted children in school may be summarized in three words: they don't
fit. Almost all American schools organize groups of children by age. As we have
seen, the highly gifted child is many ages. The child's intellectual needs
might be years ahead of same-age peers, although the gulf may be larger in some
subject areas than in others.
6-year old Rachel. She reads on a 12th grade level, although her comprehension
is "only" that of a 7th grader. She does multiplication and division,
understands fractions and decimals, but counts on her fingers because she has
never memorized addition and subtraction facts or multiplication tables. Her
favorite interests at home are paleontology and astronomy; at school her
favorite interests are lunch and recess. She collects stamps and plays chess.
Although she can concentrate at her telescope for hours at a time, she cannot
sit still when she's bored. She cries easily, loses her temper often, bosses
other children when they "don't do it right," and can't keep track of
her personal belongings. She has a sophisticated sense of humor that disarms
adults but is not understood by other children.
Rachel into a normal first grade without paying special attention to her
differences is a recipe for social, emotional and educational disaster. Even if
a gifted program is available (they commonly begin in third or fourth grade),
it is unlikely to meet her extreme needs.
Educating a highly gifted child in school is like clothing a 6X child in a
store where the largest available garment is a 3 (or with a gifted program, a
3X). Parents have to resort to alterations or individual tailoring of whatever
kind they can manage.
dealing with school issues, it's important to remember that you know more about
your child than anyone else. Your knowledge, information, and instincts are
useful and important, and they should be recognized in designing a school
program. Your child genuinely needs individual attention. Anything else may be
directly and seriously harmful.
There is no ideal school pattern for the highly gifted. However, when normal
school patterns lead to difficulty, it is important to obtain real
Acceleration Because highly gifted
children may begin school already knowing much of the material covered in early
grades and because they learn quickly, some type of acceleration is necessary.
For some children and in some situations, grade skipping is the best choice.
Placing a child with older children who share interests may be socially and
intellectually beneficial and result in a more appropriate curriculum. It is
also a simple and economical solution for the school. Some children begin
school early; others skip several early grades; others skip whole educational
levels, such as junior high or even high school. Skipping a single year is
seldom helpful, because the difference between one grade level and the next is
too small. Grade skipping is not without problems, but allowing highly gifted
children to stay in a class that meets few if any of their needs may do serious
and long-term damage.
type of acceleration is subject matter acceleration. A child may take math with
a class four grades ahead, reading with a class two grades ahead, physical
education with age peers. This type of acceleration considers the varying
developmental ages of the highly gifted child. For further flexibility, you
might consider evening classes or weekend classes at a high school or college
and ask the school to excuse coverage of those subjects in regular classes. A
child might go to school with age mates only in the morning or only in the
afternoon. This method calls for school and parental flexibility and may lead
to logistical problems such as scheduling and transportation, but is often more
satisfactory than grade skipping because the child associates at least part of
the time with age peers. When the School Will Not Change When parents approach teachers and administrators with information and
documentation, in a spirit of cooperation instead of confrontation, offering
suggestions and help instead of attacking, some positive changes in normal
methods usually result. Sometimes, however, schools refuse to make changes for
one child. When this happens, parents have few choices. One is to move to a
school system that will make changes. Another is home schooling.
For many highly gifted children home schooling is a nearly ideal solution to
the problem of fit. Instead of laboriously altering ready-made programs,
parents can tailor an education precisely to the child's needs. Clubs, sports,
scouting, and other activities supply social interaction with other children
while parents serve as teachers or facilitators or engage tutors or mentors in
various subject areas.
schooling is seldom an easy choice. In some districts it is either illegal or
beset with regulations that make it almost as rigid as classroom schooling.
When both parents or the single resident parent must work, it may be
impossible. Some parents and children find the level of togetherness stifling,
while others cannot avoid pushing and demanding too much. However, home
schooling may be a positive choice for many families. Many children move
surprisingly smoothly from home schooling in the early years into high school or
college when their intellectual needs outgrow the home environment. One of the
major benefits to education at home is the maintenance of self esteem, which is
highly problematic in a school environment.
Social/Emotional Needs In the movie E.T.
there was something heartrending in the small alien's attempts to "phone
home," in his constant longing for others of his kind despite the loving
concern of the family who cared for him. Highly gifted children endure some of
that same pain. It is hard for them to find kindred spirits, hard for them to
feel they fit into the only world they know.
gifted children may have trouble establishing fulfilling friendships with
people of their own age when there are few or no other highly gifted children
with whom to interact. As a high school student told his mother, "I can be
that part of myself that is like my classmates, and we get along fine. But,
there's no one I can share the rest of me with, no one who understands what
means the most to me." For most highly gifted children, social
relationships with age peers necessitate a constant monitoring of thoughts,
words, and behavior.
of the greatest benefits of the talent searches proliferating in colleges
across the country is the chance for highly gifted children to spend time with
others like themselves. For 3 weeks in the summer, children who qualify (by
scoring high enough on the SAT or ACT in the seventh grade or earlier) attend
class on a college campus with other highly gifted children. Rather than
feeling like oddballs, they suddenly feel normal. Lifelong friendships may form
in a matter of days. Many summer program participants consider the social
interaction as valuable as the classes.
else can you do to help highly gifted children find friends? It helps children
to understand that there are different types of friends. They may play
baseball, ride bikes, and watch TV with one person, talk about books or movies
with another, and play chess or discuss astronomy with another. Some of these
friends may be their own age, some may be younger, or more often, older. Only
in school is it suggested that people must be within a few months of each other
in age to form meaningful relationships.
Conclusion Raising a highly
gifted child may be ecstasy, agony and everything between. Adults must perform
almost impossible feats of balance - supporting a child's gifts without
pushing, valuing without overinvesting, championing without taking over. It is
costly, physically and emotionally draining, and intellectually demanding. In
the first flush of pride, few parents realize that their task is in many ways
similar to the task faced by parents of a child with severe handicaps. Our
world does not accommodate differences easily, and it matters little whether
the difference is perceived to be a deficit or an overabundance.
We have covered only a few issues in this space, but the most important help
you can give your highly gifted child or children can be expressed in a single
sentence: Give them a safe home, a refuge where they feel love and genuine
acceptance, even of their differences. As adults with a safe home in their
background, they can put together lives of productivity and fulfillment.
Resources • Boyer, A. (1989).
Surviving the blessing: Parenting the highly gifted child. Understanding our
Gifted, 1 (3), pp. 5, 17, 20-21.
• Dirks, J. (1979). Parents' reactions to identification of the gifted. Roeper
Review, 2 (2), 9-10.
• Feldman, D. H., with Goldsmith, L. T. (1986). Nature's gambit: Child
Prodigies and the development of hu- man potential. New York: Basic Books.
• Grost, A. (1970). Genius in Residence. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
• Higham, S., & Buescher, T. M. (1987). What young gifted adolescents
understand about feeling different. In T. M. Buescher (Ed.), Understanding
gifted and talented adolescents (pp. 26-30). Evanston, IL: The Center for
Talent Development, Northwestern University.
• Hollingworth, L. S. (1942). Children above 180 IQ Stanford-Binet: Origin and
Development. Yonkers- on-Hudson, NY: World Book.
• Janos, P. M., Marwood, K. A. & Robinson, N. M. (1985). Friendship
patterns in high intelligent children. Roeper Review, 8 (1), 46-49.
• Janos, P. M. & Robinson, N. M. (1985). The performance of students in a
program of radical acceleration at the university level. Gifted Child
Quarterly, 29 (4), 175- 179.
• Kearney, K. (1989). Home schooling gifted children. Understanding Our Gifted,
1 (3), pp. 1, 12-13, 15-16.
• Kline, B. E. & Meckstroth, E. A. (1985). Understanding and encouraging
the exceptionally gifted. Roeper Review, 8 (1), 24-30.
• Lewis, G. (1984). Alternatives to acceleration for the highly gifted child.
Roeper Review, 6 (3), 133-136.
• Powell, P. M., & Haden, T. (1987). The intellectual and psychosocial
nature of extreme giftedness. Roeper Review, 6 (3), 127-130.
• Silverman, L. K. (1989). The highly gifted. In J. F. Feldhusen, J.
VanTassel-Baska, & K. R. Seeley (Eds.), Excellence in educating the gifted
(pp. 71-83). Denver: Love.
• Silverman, L. K. & Kearney, K. (1989). Parents of the ex- traordinarily
gifted. Advanced Development, 1, 41-56.
• Tolan, S. S. (1982). An open letter to parents, teachers and others: From
parents of an exceptionally gifted child. In Webb, J. T., Meckstroth, E. A.
& Tolan, S. S. Guiding the gifted child. Columbus, OH: Ohio Psychology
• Tolan, S. S. (1989). Special problems of young highly gifted children.
Understanding Our Gifted, 1 (5), 1, 7- 10.
• Tolan, S. S. (1985 Jan.). Stop accepting, start demanding! Gifted Child
Monthly 6 (1), p.6.
• Tolan, S. S. (1985 Nov/Dec). Stuck in another dimension: The exceptionally
gifted child in school. G/C/T (41), 22-26.
• Webb. J. T., Meckstroth, E. A. & Tolan, S. S. (1982). Guiding the gifted
child. Columbus, OH: Ohio Psychology Publishing Co.
1989, Stephanie S. Tolan. Stephanie Tolan is a noted author of children's books
and one of the authors of Guiding the Gifted Child.
ERIC digests are in the public domain and may be freely reproduced and
This publication was prepared with funding from the Office of Educational
Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education, under contract no.
RI88062007. The opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect
the positions or policies of OERI or the Department of Education.